【Android 异步操作】Handler 机制 ( Handler 常用用法 | HandlerThread 简介 | HandlerThread 源码注释分析 )





一、Handler 常用用法



主线程 Handler 主要作用 : Looper 和 Message 都在 主线程 , Handler 也在 主线程 初始化 , 在子线程中调用该 Handler , 通知主线程进行一些操作 , 一般是更新 UI ;

子线程 Handler 主要作用 : Looper 和 Message 都在 子线程 , Handler 也在 子线程 初始化 , 在主线程中调用该 Handler , 通知子线程进行一些操作 , 一般是网络操作 , 计算 , 或其它耗时任务 ;





二、HandlerThread 简介



HandlerThread 就是使用了 Handler 机制的线程 , 其本质是一个 线程 Thread ; 属于上述介绍的 子线程 Handler 机制 ;

在运行 HandlerThread 线程的 run 方法时 ,

在 run 方法开始处 , 会调用 Looper.prepare() 方法 , 初始化该线程的 Looper ,

在 run 方法结束处 , 会调用 Looper.loop() 方法 , 开启无限循环 , 从 Looper 中的 MessageQueue 中循环获取消息 , 并转发给 取出的 Message 消息对应的 Handler 进行相关任务处理 ;

HandlerThread 线程的 run() 方法如下 :

public class HandlerThread extends Thread {
    @Override
    public void run() {
        mTid = Process.myTid();
        Looper.prepare();
        synchronized (this) {
            mLooper = Looper.myLooper();
            notifyAll();
        }
        Process.setThreadPriority(mPriority);
        onLooperPrepared();
        Looper.loop();
        mTid = -1;
    }
}




三、HandlerThread 源码



/**
 * 含有 Looper 的线程.
 * Looper 用于创建 Handler.
 * <p>
 * 该类是一个线程类, 必须调用 start 方法开启线程. 
 */
public class HandlerThread extends Thread {
    int mPriority;
    int mTid = -1;
    Looper mLooper;
    private @Nullable Handler mHandler;

    public HandlerThread(String name) {
        super(name);
        mPriority = Process.THREAD_PRIORITY_DEFAULT;
    }
    
    /**
     * 创建 HandlerThread.
     * @param name
     * @param priority 线程运行优先级
     */
    public HandlerThread(String name, int priority) {
        super(name);
        mPriority = priority;
    }
    
    /**
     * Looper 无限循环之前执行的操作 
     */
    protected void onLooperPrepared() {
    }

    @Override
    public void run() {
        mTid = Process.myTid();
        // Looper 初始化 
        Looper.prepare();
        synchronized (this) {
            mLooper = Looper.myLooper();
            notifyAll();
        }
        Process.setThreadPriority(mPriority);
        onLooperPrepared();
        // 无限循环获取消息并执行
        Looper.loop();
        mTid = -1;
    }
    
    /**
     * 返回与该线程关联的 Looper .
     * 如果线程没有启动 , 或者线程不处于活动状态 , 返回空.
     * 如果线程已经启动 , 该方法会阻塞 , 直到 Looper 被初始化完毕后 , 返回 Looper.
     * @return The looper.
     */
    public Looper getLooper() {
        if (!isAlive()) {
            return null;
        }
        
        // If the thread has been started, wait until the looper has been created.
        synchronized (this) {
            while (isAlive() && mLooper == null) {
                try {
                    wait();
                } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                }
            }
        }
        return mLooper;
    }

    /**
     * @return 返回一个与该线程关联的共享 Handler
     * @hide
     */
    @NonNull
    public Handler getThreadHandler() {
        if (mHandler == null) {
            mHandler = new Handler(getLooper());
        }
        return mHandler;
    }

    /**
     * 退出 Looper 循环. 
     * <p>
     * Causes the handler thread's looper to terminate without processing any
     * more messages in the message queue.
     * </p><p>
     * Any attempt to post messages to the queue after the looper is asked to quit will fail.
     * For example, the {@link Handler#sendMessage(Message)} method will return false.
     * </p><p class="note">
     * Using this method may be unsafe because some messages may not be delivered
     * before the looper terminates.  Consider using {@link #quitSafely} instead to ensure
     * that all pending work is completed in an orderly manner.
     * </p>
     *
     * @return True if the looper looper has been asked to quit or false if the
     * thread had not yet started running.
     *
     * @see #quitSafely
     */
    public boolean quit() {
        Looper looper = getLooper();
        if (looper != null) {
            looper.quit();
            return true;
        }
        return false;
    }

    /**
     * 安全退出线程 loop.
     * <p>
     * Causes the handler thread's looper to terminate as soon as all remaining messages
     * in the message queue that are already due to be delivered have been handled.
     * Pending delayed messages with due times in the future will not be delivered.
     * </p><p>
     * Any attempt to post messages to the queue after the looper is asked to quit will fail.
     * For example, the {@link Handler#sendMessage(Message)} method will return false.
     * </p><p>
     * If the thread has not been started or has finished (that is if
     * {@link #getLooper} returns null), then false is returned.
     * Otherwise the looper is asked to quit and true is returned.
     * </p>
     *
     * @return True if the looper looper has been asked to quit or false if the
     * thread had not yet started running.
     */
    public boolean quitSafely() {
        Looper looper = getLooper();
        if (looper != null) {
            looper.quitSafely();
            return true;
        }
        return false;
    }

    /**
     * 返回线程 ID
     */
    public int getThreadId() {
        return mTid;
    }
}

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